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15/06/2020 Afternoon (Written exam due to COVID-19) Edit

Explain in one sentence: blastema, conditional specification, gynadromorph, epiblast (2)

Techniques: Gal4-UAS, ChIP-Seq (2)

Hedgehog signaling pathway + example (3)

Function of the "Organizer" (=Spemann organizer) + link with picture (4)

Regeneration of flatworms + link this with given picture (cNeoblasts pluripotent - multipotent progenitors dilemma) (4)

27/06/2019 Afternoon Edit

Briefly explain: parasegments, trophoblasts and genetic imprinting

Notch pathway and example

Sex determination in drosophila

New! Regeneration of flat worms

Techniques: Gal4

27/06/2019 Morning Edit

Briefly explain: gynadromorph, epimorphosis

Wnt Pathway

A P axis Drosophila

Compare limb regeneration with development

Techniques: Crispr Cas and cell lineage

21/06/2019 Edit

  1. Briefly explain: Histoblast, Polyphenism, miRNA
  2. Hedgehog pathway + role in animal development
  3. DV axis Amphibia + compare with Drosophila and mammals
  4. Hox genes, evo-devo context
  5. Techniques: ChIP-Seq, Cre-Lox

29/08/2018 Edit

  1. Briefly explain: gynandromorph, parasegment, imaginal disc, Nieuwkoop center, epimorphosis (2.5 pts)
  2. Notch pathway + example (2.5 pts)
  3. DV axis Drosophila (4 pts)
  4. Sex determination mammals (4 pts)
  5. techniques: In situ hybridization, RNAi (2 pts)

29/06/2018 Edit

  1. Briefly explain: polyphenism, apoptosis, miRNA
  2. Hox genes
  3. DNA methylation
  4. DV axis amphibians
  5. techniques: ChIP, cre-lox

22/06/2018 Edit

  1. Briefly explain: Gynandromorph, imaginal disc, parasegment
  2. Wnt signalling pathway (canonical) + example
  3. DV patterning Drosophila
  4. Sex determination mammals
  5. techniques: fate mapping, transgenic mice

18/06/2018 NM Edit

  1. briefly explain (around 1 sentence): trophoblast, Speman organizer, epimorphosis
  2. Hippo signaling pathway + example
  3. metamorphosis in amphibians
  4. sex determination Drosophila
  5. techniques: in situ hybridization, RNA interference

23/06/2017 NM Edit

  1. Briefly explain: imaginal disc, polyphenism, gynandromorph
  2. Canonical Wnt pathway and it's role in early amphibian development.
  3. Role of Hox genes in metazoans
  4. Sex determination in mammals
  5. Explain: Morpholinos and micro array.

23/06/2016 NM Edit

1. Explain

  • barr body
  • hypoblast
  • nieuwkoopcenter

2. BMP signaling + example

3. DV drosophila

4. Compare limb development (tetrapoda) abd limb regeneration (amphibia)

5. Explain techniques:

  • reproductive cloning
  • morfolines (extra question: why use morfolinos and not for example RNAi)

17/06/2016 NM Edit

1. Briefly explain

  • Trophoblast
  • Parasegments
  • Micropyle

2. Hedgehog signaling pathway + example in development

3. DV axis in amphibians

4. Sex differentiation in Drosophilas

5. Briefly explain following technique

  • In situ hybridisation
  • RNA interference

25/06/2015 NM Edit

- Explain:

  1. Embryonic Shield
  2. Hypoblast
  3. Polyfenisme

- Wnt singaling + voorbeeld

- Sex differentiatie bij drosophila

-  Hox genen clusters bij metazoa uitleggen en vertellen waarom het belangrijk is in evolutie. Bijvraag: hoe zit dat bij vliegen?

- technieken:

  1. conditionele knock-outs
  2. enhancer trapping 

25/06/2015 VM Edit

- Explain:

  1. Barr body
  2. Histoblast
  3. Nieuwkoop center

- Hedgehoc signalling pathway + voorbeeld

- Dorso-ventrale ontwikkeling in de vlieg (early development)

- vergelijking limp development met regeneratie bij amfibieën

- technieken:

  1. reproductive cloning
  2. Morpholinos

19/06/2015 Edit

  1. Explain:
    1. apoptosis
    2. miRNA
    3. micropyle
  2. What role(s) does DNA methylation have on development? Illustrate with an example.
  3. Explain 'dosage compensation' in worms, flies and humans.
  4. Explain the anterior-posterior establishing in Drosophila.
  5. Explain:
    1. Transgenic mice
    2. microarray

22/06/2012 Edit

1. Begrippen: micropyle, hypoblast, trophoblast
Hoofdvragen:
2. Notch signalling pathway
3. Sexdeterminatie bij Drosophila
4. Metamorfose bij amfibieën
5. Techieken: microarray + gel mobility shift assay

01/07/2011 VM Edit

  1. Explain:
    • Barr body
    • Epiboly
    • Nieuwkoop center
  2. Explain how the AP-axis is established in Drosophila
  3. Describe digit formation in tetrapods
  4. Describe the Hedgehog pathway and give an example
  5. Explain:
    • In situ hybridization
    • Morpholino oligomers

24/06/2011 Edit

  1. leg kort uit:
    • apoptose
    • epiblast
    • imaginal disc
  2. BMP signalling pathway + vb uit ontwikkeling
  3. Hox gene cluster in metazoa bespreken + rol in de evolutie en ontwikkeling uitleggen
  4. Sex determinatie bij de vlieg
  5. Volgende technieken uitleggen:
    • RNAi
    • reproductieve kloning

××/06/2010 Edit

  1. Briefly explain:
    • embryonic shield
    • morfogenetic field
    • P-granules
  2. Explain how the AP-axis is established in Drosophila
  3. Describe proves of digit formation in tetrapods
  4. Briefly explain the principle of following technical apllications
    • Conditional Knock-out
    • Enhancer trapping

19/06/2010 Edit

  1. leg kort uit:
    • epiboly
    • microRNA
    • mid-blastula transition
  2. invloed van omgevingsfactoren op ontwikkeling: leg uit een geef een voorbeeld
  3. vergelijk de specificatie en patterning van de dorso-ventrale as in fliegen en kikkers
  4. bespreek sex determination in drosophila melanogaster
  5. leg volgende technieken uit:
    • transgene knock-out muizen
    • morpholino oligomeren
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