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12/06/2021

1)     Describe the current distribution of Marsupialia and the origin, geological and evolutionary processes that led to it.

2)     Give all hypothesis for the dominance of angiosperms and which one/combination is better.

3)     Multiple choice:

a.     Nothofagus is: only found in Australia

b.     Glossopteris is dominant flora of: southern hemisphere of Permian era

c.     Osmunda is: (dominant of what flora in what era?)

d.      Miocene flora of New Zeland is: sclerophyllus and rainforest flora that came by dispersal from Australia

e.     Today more large herbivores are found in Africa than South America, why?: Humans hunted them to extinction in South America

f.      Evolutionary origin of lions (Panthera leo): Africa (Afrotheria group), Europe and reached Africa when desserts evolved, Asia and reached Africa in Miocene ¿?

g.     What are climatic relicts: survivals of previously widely diverged groups that now live on small areas of suitable climate

h.     Original Cape flora before ice ages: rainforest

i.      Prosimians occur in: Africa, Madagascar, eastern Asia



12/09/2021[]

Brendonck

Describe + discuss the current distribution of the Marsupialia, making use of geological, ecological and evolutionary processes in a historical context.

MC:

  • Wallace is known from:
  • Lion: where originated and where now?
  • Prosimians only occur in:
  • climate relict species are:
  • more large herbivores in Africa than S-America because

Jacquemyn

Describe the major hypotheses that may explain the success of angiosperms during the Cretaceous + explain which hypothesis or combination is most likely.

MC

  • Glossopteris
  • Before the onset of global cooling, the Cape region flora was:
  • Miocene flora of New Zealand
  • Nothofagus
  • Osmunda

01/09/2020[]

Brendonck

Give 3 common hypotheses why there is a higher species number and diversity in the tropics. Also critically evaluate these hypotheses.

Discuss the Bovidae in Africa. Also give a timeline of the events and give species as examples.

Multiple choice:

  • where does the Lion originate from
  • Wallace is known as the father of zoogeography
  • where do the prosimians occur
  • Romanian hamster distribution
  • ...

Jacquemyn

There was some criticism on Von Hombolds biomes. What important things, not climate related, did he not take into account?

Multiple choice:

  • Glossopteris
  • Before the onset of global cooling, the Cape region flora was:
  • Miocene flora of New Zealand
  • Nothofagus
  • Osmunda

2/07/2020[]

Brendonck

Describe + discuss the current distribution of the Marsupialia, making use of geological, ecological and evolutionary processes in a historical context.

Multiple choice:

  • climate relict species are:
  • more large herbivores in Africa than S-America because:
  • Prosimians currently occur in:
  • Wallace is known from:
  • Lion (Panthera leo) --> where originated, where occur now

Jacquemyn

Describe the major hypotheses that may explain the success of angiosperms during the Cretaceous + explain which hypothesis or combination is most likely.

Multiple choice:

  • Glossopteris
  • Before the onset of global cooling, the Cape region flora was:
  • Miocene flora of New Zealand
  • Nothofagus
  • Osmunda

25/06/2020[]

Brendonck

What island types are there and which processes are involved? What are the consequences for the biota? Give some examples of radiation on islands. Give the adaptations to island life.

MC:

  • Australia -> large reptile predators
  • Where do Prosimians occur
  • Where does the tapir occur
  • The giant ant eater is a typical representative of the ... fauna
  • Wallace is known for -> evolution theory in parallel with Darwin and father of zoogeography

Jacquemyn

Describe the Australian flora and vegetation and give some characteristic features of the vegetation. How did the flora evolve from the Gondwana rainforest to the current vegetation, what processes were involved

MC:

  • Nothophagus
  • Glossopteris
  • Osmunda
  • What was the fauna like on the Cape before the onset cooling (something with cooling)
  • How did the Miocene New Zeeland flora originate and what was is like

22/06/2020[]

Brendonck

- Give (dis)advantages of using mammals to identify biogeograpical regions

- Compare North-America and Eurasia (What is the endemicity in both regions? Which species do they have in common? What are (dis)similarities between the regions? Which processes have affected this?)

MC: predator Australia, Hawaii, tallgrass prairies are: then 3 options (nutrient rich/poor, C4 or C3), Eurasia is a good corridor between North-America and Asia because:

Jacquemyn

- Explain the evolution and distribution of grasses and explain the major grass biomes in the world

MC: Brachysteria, Osomunda, glossopteris, ..

16.06.2020[]

Brendonck

Odonata

a) Figures are given. Place each species with the figure and explain their distribution pattern.

b) Why do they not appear further north?

Multiple choice:

  • Predator Australia
  • Why is there more forest fauna in Africa than SA?
  • How do we know Hawaii is a type 3 island? (ancestral populations in NW)
  • 2 others

Jacquemyn

Early plant life + why it took so long for leaves to develop

MC:

  • Brachystegia
  • Triobia
  • Miombo
  • Why would plants be carnivores?
  • Gymnosperms are more cold and drought resistant than angiosperms

27.08.2019[]

Brendonck

a) Types of islands - he wanted to know the processes and examples for each type (UK - Krakatau - Hawaii) and consequences for the island biota

b) Examples of radiations in island habitat types (so also the chiclids of the African lakes)

c) Adaptations to island life

Jacquemyn

a) Early plant life

b) Why did leaves only emerge in the last 10my?

Multiple choice

  • Alexander Humboldt - Father of Plant Geography
  • The Romanian Hamster distribution
  • Prosimians - where do they occur
  • Extrapolation of species
  • Brachystegia
  • Temperate grasslands - nutrient rich & mainly C4 plants
  • Glossopteris
  • Osomunda
  • and two others

24/06/2019[]

Brendonck (10p):

  • Explain the fauna in the Americas from 66mya untill now. (So give the four phases, placing of the continents, most important species groups and be able to give examples of species belonging to each group you name. He wanted to hear every species that was given on the slides)

Multiple choice (5p):

  • Wallace was known for being considered the father of zoological biogeography
  • Poema came from Asia
  • Climate relicts: Survivors of formerly widely distributed organisms that now survive on remaining ‘islands’ with favourable climate (e.g. glacial relicts).

jaquemin (10p):

Explain the flora of the neotropics. (So also history of the continents, processes like mountain formation, uplifting, situate the biomes, be able to name the rivers, give the 6 processes which were important for the evolution of high diversity: habitat diversoty; nutrient supply, allopatric speciation because of Andes, vicariance because of andes, corridor and the species pump (andes))

Multiple choice (5p):

  • Gymnosperms are more cold and drought resistant than Angiosperms
  • Glossopteris was distributed during the Permian

07/06/2019[]

Brendonck:

  • Compare fauna in the paleotropic and oriental regions. Explain differences, resemblances and the cause of both. (Also be able to give specific examples of species. So not just "Afrotheria e.g. elephants", that is not enough. Give also other examples because if you only say what is in the slides you will pass, but you will not get a lot of points.)
  • Chose between 3 things (multiple option questions) (10 questions!)
    • Psammophyte --> kan tegen veel wind
    • why is there more forest fauna in Africa than S-America
    • A question about a grassspecies from Australia
    • What is miombo (ofzo)
    • No big mammal predators in Australia --> evidence: big reptile predators
    • Gymnosperms vs Angiosperms about which one is frost proof and drought resistant

Jaquimyn:

  • There was some criticism on Von Hombolds biomes. What important things, not climate related, did he not take into account? (--> disturbance (fire, grazing), and a third thing, whatever that was..)

08/06/2018[]

Brendonck:

  • What are the difficulties the organisms must encounter when colonizing an island, give 3 and explain.
  • What are the differences in colonization between a big and a small island with similar distances to the mainland?

Jacquimain:

  • Grass landscapes (tropical and temperate), describe these + give origin and evolution.

Multiple choice:[]

  • What is a Psammophyte? (got 3 defenitions to choose from)
  • What disjunction do we know with the ratidae? (evolutionair, geographical or ...)
  • Gymnosperms vs Angiosperms about which one is frost proof and drought resistant?
  • Hawaii is an island type 3: ... we know this because ancestrale taxa are situated to the north
  • Australie has no big mammal predators, this is because: .... there are big reptiles
  • Group presentations about the Apis melifera, Acer, Orchidaceae, Xenarthra and an other one

08/06/2018[]

Brendonck:

  • Compare fauna in the paleotropic and oriental regions. Explain differences, resemblances and the cause of both.

Jacquemyn:

  • Early development of plants.

5 questions about group works

5 questions about course

09/06/2017[]

Morning[]

  • compare fauna in the paleotropic and oriental regions, and their history. Elaborate on species and adaptations from savanna to forest (tom) (10p)
  • early plant life + leave development (remember the exact dates) (hans) (10p)
  • multiple choice (negative total score of max -3.3/10 possible) (10p)
    • crocodylia, dispersal or vicariance (group presentations)
    • baobab, dispersal/vicariance (gp)
    • cacti, Africa/ none of the above (gp)
    • carnivorous plants are carnivorous because.. (gp)
    • sth about a grass from Australia
    • sth about the mimbio(?)
    • sth about a tree of the mimbio (?)
  • Island biogeographie, sth about the critique
  • Why are there more large forest herbivores: in Africa then South America? (options: Bovidae origin in Africa, Larger grass lands in Africa or due to massive extinction through human hunt in South America)
  • Why is there so much endemicity in Australia and South America? (Historic isolation, immigration or ... )

Afternoon:[]

  • What are the difficulties the organisms must encounter when colonizing an island, give 3 and explain. What are the differences in colonization between a big and a small island with similar distances to the mainland?
  • Grass landscapes (tropical and temperate), give origin.

Multiple choice:[]

  • What is a Psammophyte ( vs Succulent vs Lithops)
  • What disjunction do we know with the ratidae
  • Caatinga is... (not Garrigue, Miombo)
  • Gymnosperms vs Angiosperms: xho is frostproof, drought resistant?
  • Hawaii is an island type 3: we know this because ancestrale taxa are situated to the north
  • Australie has no big mammal predators, this is because: .... there are big reptiles
  • + 4 of the group presentations

!!Dutch course became English!!

29/08/2016[]

Meerkeuze:

  • Muskusrat diffusie van N-Amerika naar europa
  • Roemeense hamster
  • Lamos (atalana nevelvegetatie )
  • Virgina opposum
  • Panthera
  • Squamata
  • Lemur
  • 1 clade rafting

Bredonk:

  • Verklaar de longitudinale gradiënt van dierlijke diversiteit van polen naar tropen (voedselniches?)

Jaquemain:

  • Welke factoren betrokken bij het ontstaan van flora
  • Toep Australië : van waar naar waar,  hoe vroeger, hoe nu,  hoe weten we dat? (fossiele record,  fylogenie ldd plot)

23/06/2016[]

Jacquemyn:

  • Wat zouden de oorzaken kunnen zijn van de verspreiding van grassen? Geef en bespreek de voornaamste graslandschappen.

Brendonck:

  • De venndiagrammen gegeven van mioceen en tegenwoordig. En ook die tabel van de endeem% van elk continent. Bespreek de figuren en verklaar de cijfers en de veranderingen (dus eerst de continenten apart bespreken en dan de verschillen tussen mioceen-holoceen)

Meerkeuzevragen: (met -1/3 punt per fout)

  • Over de werkjes en de hoofdstukken van de andere proffen.

20/06/2016[]

Brendonck:

  • Beschrijf en bespreek de kolonisatie van Rakata na de vulkanische explosie van Krakatau. Gebruik hierbij de figuren van de migratiesnelheid, van de evolutie van vegetatie en van dispersiemechanismen (figuren gegeven).

Jacquemyn:

  • Diversificaties verlopen niet altijd even snel, bespreek de diversificaties en de snelheid ervan van planten doorheen de geschiedenis

Meerkeuze vragen:

  • iets over de wallace lijn
  • iets over de verspreiding van de poema
  • de ... boom is een kenmerkende soort voor ...
  • iets over de marquis
  • + 5 vragen over de groepswerken

03/06/2016[]

Brendonck:

  • Bespreek de verspreiding van drie Odonata soorten adhv gegeven figuren. Duid aan welke figuur bij welke libel hoort en bespreek deze verspreiding.

Jacquemyn:

  • Hoe is de flora in de neotropen ontstaan. En welke factoren hebben bijgedragen aan de hoge biodiversiteit.
  • 10 meerkeuzevragen

05/06/2015[]

Brendonck:

  • Het verhaal van Rakata, met alles erop en eraan; figuren zijn gegeven.

Jacquemyn:

  • Bespreek de vroege ontwikkeling van de planten. Hoe hebben planten hun eigen evolutie gestuurd? (Met vroeg bedoelt hij Siluur-Devoon)

05/06/2015[]

Brendonck:

  • Bespreek de verspreiding van drie Odonata soorten adhv gegeven figuren. Duid aan welke figuur bij welke libel hoort en bespreek deze verspreiding. (Je krijgt de namen van de libellen)

Jacquemyn:

  • Planten tonen sterke aanpassing aan hun omgeving. Leg uit en duid aan met voorbeelden uit de volgende drie omgevingen: a) Koude woestijnen b) Gematigde struikvegetatie c) Toendra

06/06/14[]

Brendonck:

  • Beschrijf en bespreek de kolonisatie van Rakata na de vulkanische explosie van Krakatau. Gebruik hierbij de figuren van de migratiesnelheid van (varens, bloemplanten, vlinders, vogels en zo), van de evolutie van vegetatie (van grassen naar dicht bos) en van dispersiemechanismen (dus met wind-, zee- en dierendispersie).

Jacquemyn:

  • Bespreek hoe de landbouw is ontstaan en leg uit hoe dit het uitzicht van de wereld heeft veranderd. (Tip: dit zijn die factoren van habitatfragmentatie, pesticiden, N-depositie, ...)

Meerkeuze:

  • Glossopteris is...
  • Nebka is...
  • Osmunda is...
  • Wallace heeft het systeem van ... aangepast met zoogdieren en andere vertebraten en een lijn tussen Orientaals en Australische regio getrokken

26/06/2013[]

Jacquemyn: 

  • Schets kort de evolutie van de mens en bespreek de vroege effecten op fauna en flora.

Brendonck:

  • 2 figuren over de endemiciteit en gelijkheid tussen de zoögeografische regio's:
  • Bespreek deze zoogeografische regio's aan de hand van de endemiciteit en hun gelijkeheid. Integreer de evolutionaire, geologische en ecologische kennis. ( Verklaar de verschillen tussen mioceen en holoceen).
  • 10 meerkeuzevragen

==
10/06/13 == Jacquemyn:

  • Welke eigenschappen van de vegetatie kunnen worden gebruikt om biomen af te bakenen? Pas dit toe op droog tropisch woud en savanne (hij wilt een vergelijking tussen de fysionomie van deze 2 bioomtypes, niet gewoon een bespreking van de biomen).

Brendonck:

  • Bespreek interactie tussen Noord- en Zuid-Amerika met als climax the great american interchange.
  • Bespreek de zonatiepatronen van toenemende diversiteit van de polen naar de tropen toe.
  • Bespreek de eigenschappen van eilanden: A. de verschillende types, B. algemeen, voor en nadelen van leven op eilanden, C. leg verbanden met andere eilandtypes.
  • Bespreek de interactie tussen Noord- en Zuid-Amerika met als climax the great american interchange.

Geuten:

  • Beschrijf bondig de gekende biomen op aarde
  • Beschrijf het bioom sclerofylle vegetatie in meer detail.
  • Leg het begrip 'phylogenetic biome conservatism' uit.
  • Bespreek de flora van Madagascar. Link met het systeem van Takhtajan.
  • Bespreek de flora van Australië en Nieuw- Zeeland. Link met het systeem van Takhtajan. Verband met andere continenten?
  • Bespreek het tropische regenwoud.
  • Bespreek de Savanne, verklaar Miombo.
  • Bespreek de beweging van de landmassa's in relatie met de fossiele flora van Devoon tot Krijt. Welk effect heeft het Krijt gehad op de moderne flora?
  • 10 meerkeuzevragen uit de rest van de cursus en de werkjes.

xx/06/2010[]

Koen Geuten

  • Bespreek de huidige verspreiding van de flora van Australïe en Nieuw-Zeeland
  • Hoe is deze tot stand gekomen? (In feite de geologische

en klimatologische geschiedenis beschrijven van Perm (Gondwana) tot nu) Luc Brendonck

  • Er is een ongelijke verdeling van biodiversiteit over de breedtegraden. Verklaar dit voor dieren.
  • Geef ook de andere mogelijkheden voor de verdeling in biodiversiteit (4 in totaal: ijstijden, rapoport, oppervlakte en centre of origin). (Deze prof wilt graag de verschillende voorbeelden die in de cursus zijn gebruikt terug te horen krijgen van u).
  • 10 meerkeuzevragen (wel met giscorrectie), 5 over cursus, 5 over de werkjes van studenten.